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Are 5 minutes too long? T heEMC. Christopher Hahn. Their "cheat sheets" are especially well crafted. The recently-added evidence atlas distills down the literature that is vital in demonstrating the value of POCUS to students and new learners. Ben Smith. The project was initiated by Dr.

Medical ultrasound

Each lecture is written and narrated by an academy member and then peer-reviewed by Dr. We hope you find these lectures informative and useful! Chris Foxx Lecture Series - Free on iTunes, these open access lectures are guaranteed help you learn something new no matter what your experience level. Foxx is one of the faces of POCUS due to his terrific lectures, passion for ultrasound and dedication to getting ultrasound into the hands of our newest generation of physicians.

A place to highlight cases, applications and prominent people in bedside US education and research. It's a collection of all the best FOAMed ultrasound resources in one place, organized into individual modules by scan category!

This is FOAMed education from the top educators in ultrasound and who doesn't want to learn from the best. This is online interactive module to assist with teaching and learning the assessment of cardiac function with FOCUS. This site answers the mystery of what plane you are looking in and how it corresponds to the anatomical site. Phil Perera teamed up with SonoSite to create this series of excellent teaching videos. Perera hails from Stanford and has much in common with Dr.

Gharahbaghian, creator of SonoSpot. These videos are concise, quick to the point, and highly educational. They cover the anatomy, pitfalls, pearls and a down and dirty of how to quickly perform your scan. They are also often accompanied by great graphics to help you better learn the material being covered.

However, we recognize that a well run clinical ultrasound program depends fair reimbursement to be economically viable. While SPOCUS does not endorse any ultrasound manufacturers or have relationships with industry or pharma, we do appreciate FOAMed and are quick to thank anyone in the business world that helps us provide better care for our patients.

SonoSite has created an excellent site to educate providers with coding and reimbursement information, and you don't have to own a SonoSite machine to take advantage of the learning. The University of South Carolina School of Medicine has developed an extensive ultrasound training program with the intent of providing a series of educational programs for its medical students, medical residents, and practicing physicians in primary care from around the state, the Southeast, and globally.

From UF Nephrology, this series of youtube videos is dedicated to all things kidney-related!

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It is also used for vascular access such as central venous cannulation and difficult arterial cannulation. Transcranial Doppler is frequently used by neuro-anesthesiologists for obtaining information about flow-velocity in the basal cerebral vessels. In angiology or vascular medicine, duplex ultrasound B Mode imaging combined with Doppler flow measurement is used to diagnose arterial and venous disease. This is particularly important in neurology , where carotid ultrasound is used for assessing blood flow and stenoses in the carotid arteries , and transcranial Doppler is used for imaging flow in the intracerebral arteries.

Intravascular ultrasound IVUS uses a specially designed catheter , with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to its distal end, which is then threaded inside a blood vessel. The proximal end of the catheter is attached to computerized ultrasound equipment and allows the application of ultrasound technology, such as piezoelectric transducer or CMUT , to visualize the endothelium inner wall of blood vessels in living individuals. In the case of the common and potentially, serious problem of blood clots in the deep veins of the leg, ultrasound plays a key diagnostic role, while ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs focuses on more superficial veins to assist with planning of suitable interventions to relieve symptoms or improve cosmetics.

Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiology , assisting in evaluation of heart valve function, such as stenosis or insufficiency , and strength of cardiac muscle contraction. Point of care emergency ultrasound has many applications in emergency medicine. This includes differentiating cardiac causes of acute breathlessness from pulmonary causes, and the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma FAST exam for assessing significant hemoperitoneum or pericardial tamponade after trauma.

Other uses include assisting with differentiating causes of abdominal pain such as gallstones and kidney stones. Emergency Medicine Residency Programs have a substantial history of promoting the use of bedside ultrasound during physician training.

Abdominal and endoanal ultrasound are frequently used in gastroenterology and colorectal surgery. In abdominal sonography, the solid organs of the abdomen such as the pancreas , aorta , inferior vena cava , liver , gall bladder , bile ducts , kidneys , and spleen are imaged. However, sound waves are blocked by gas in the bowel and attenuated to differing degrees by fat, sometimes limiting diagnostic capabilities in this area.

The appendix can sometimes be seen when inflamed as in e. Endoanal ultrasound is used particularly in the investigation of anorectal symptoms such as fecal incontinence or obstructed defecation. It images the immediate perianal anatomy and is able to detect occult defects such as tearing of the anal sphincter. Ultrasonography of liver tumors allows for both detection and characterization.

Gynecologic ultrasonography examines female pelvic organs specifically the uterus , ovaries , and Fallopian tubes as well as the bladder , adnexa , and Pouch of Douglas.

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It commonly uses transducers designed for approaches through the lower abdominal wall, curvilinear and sector, and specialty transducers such as endovaginal. Obstetrical sonography was originally developed in the late s and 60s by Sir Ian Donald and is commonly used during pregnancy to check on the development and presentation of the fetus. It is currently believed that the risk of leaving these conditions undiagnosed is greater than the small risk, if any, associated with undergoing an ultrasound scan.

But its use for non-medical purposes such as fetal "keepsake" videos and photos is discouraged. Ultrasonic examinations should only be performed by competent personnel who are trained and updated in safety matters.

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Ultrasound produces heating, pressure changes and mechanical disturbances in tissue. Biological effects of non-thermal origin have been reported in animals but, to date, no such effects have been demonstrated in humans, except when a micro-bubble contrast agent is present.

Nonetheless, care should be taken to use low power settings and avoid pulsed wave scanning of the fetal brain unless specifically indicated in high risk pregnancies. Ultrasound scanners have different Doppler -techniques to visualize arteries and veins.

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The most common is color Doppler or power Doppler, but also other techniques like b-flow are used to show blood flow in an organ. By using pulsed wave Doppler or continuous wave Doppler blood flow velocities can be calculated. Blood velocity can be measured in various blood vessels, such as middle cerebral artery or descending aorta , by relatively inexpensive and low risk ultrasound Doppler probes attached to portable monitors [6].

These provides non-invasive or transcutaneous non-piecing minimal invasive blood flow assessment. Most structures of the neck, including the thyroid and parathyroid glands , lymph nodes , and salivary glands , are well-visualized by high-frequency ultrasound with exceptional anatomic detail. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for thyroid tumors and lesions, and ultrasonography is critical in the evaluation, preoperative planning, and postoperative surveillance of patients with thyroid cancer.

Many other benign and malignant conditions in the head and neck can be evaluated and managed with the help of diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided procedures. In neonatology , transcranial Doppler can be used for basic assessment of intracerebral structural abnormalities, bleeds, ventriculomegaly or hydrocephalus and anoxic insults Periventricular leukomalacia. The ultrasound can be performed through the soft spots in the skull of a newborn infant Fontanelle until these completely close at about 1 year of age and form a virtually impenetrable acoustic barrier for the ultrasound.

The most common site for cranial ultrasound is the anterior fontanelle. The smaller the fontanelle, the poorer the quality of the picture. In ophthalmology and optometry , there are two major forms of eye exam using ultrasound:. Modern ultrasound is used to assess the lungs in a variety of settings including critical care, emergency medicine, trauma surgery, as well as internal medicine. This imaging modality is used at the bedside to evaluate a number of different lung abnormalities as well as to guide procedures such as thoracentesis , pleural drainage, needle aspiration biopsy, and catheter placement.

Ultrasound is routinely used in urology to determine, for example, the amount of fluid retained in a patient's bladder. In a pelvic sonogram, organs of the pelvic region are imaged.

A Field Guide to Bedside Ultrasound

This includes the uterus and ovaries or urinary bladder. Males are sometimes given a pelvic sonogram to check on the health of their bladder, the prostate , or their testicles for example to distinguish epididymitis from testicular torsion. In young males, it is used to distinguish more benign testicular masses varicocele or hydrocele from testicular cancer , which is highly curable but which must be treated to preserve health and fertility.

There are two methods of performing a pelvic sonography — externally or internally. The internal pelvic sonogram is performed either trans vaginally in a woman or transrectally in a man. Sonographic imaging of the pelvic floor can produce important diagnostic information regarding the precise relationship of abnormal structures with other pelvic organs and it represents a useful hint to treat patients with symptoms related to pelvic prolapse, double incontinence and obstructed defecation. It is used to diagnose and, at higher frequencies, to treat break up kidney stones or kidney crystals nephrolithiasis.

Scrotal ultrasonography is used in the evaluation of testicular pain , and can help identify solid masses. Ultrasound is an excellent method for the study of the penis , such as indicated in trauma, priapism, erectile dysfunction or suspected Peyronie's disease.